Anatomy and physiology of the heart

Structure of the Heart Wall The heart wall is made of 3 layers: During ventricular systole, the ventricles contract to push blood into the aorta and pulmonary trunk. It next passes through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricles, and from there is pumped through the pulmonary valve into the pulmonary artery.

The pulmonary and systemic circuits

The University of Minnesota is an equal opportunity educator and employer. Valves of the Heart The heart functions by pumping blood both to the lungs and to the systems of the body. Oxygen travels into the capillaries, and carbon dioxide travels from the capillaries into the air sacs, where it is breathed out into the atmosphere.

Heart Anatomy

The heart, blood, and blood vessels combined are referred to as the circulatory system. The AV bundle splits into left and right branches in the interventricular septum and continues running through the septum until they reach the apex of the heart.

Arteries branch into smaller arterioles. The pericardial sac extends upwards enclosing the great. The inward portion reflects the sodium influx, triggered by the very large and rapid rise in sodium permeability.

The heart continually pumps oxygen, nutrients, waste and many other substances throughout the body. The superficial epicardium is the visceral layer of the serous pericardium.

In general, the gross anatomy of the right heart pump is considerably different from that of the left heart pump, yet the pumping principles of each are primarily the same.


The loose fitting superficial part of this sac is the fibrous pericardium. The SA node is responsible for setting the pace of the heart as a whole and directly signals the atria to contract. There are commonly four main pulmonary veins that return blood from the lungs to the left atrium.

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The effective pumping action of the heart requires that there be a precise coordination of the myocardial contractions millions of cellsand this is accomplished via the conduction system of the heart see Fig.

The heart: All you need to know

Here, we explain how this amazing organ carries out this vital work. The right side of the heart receives deoxygenated blood and sends it to the lungs; the left side of the heart receives blood from the lungs and pumps it to the rest of the body. As the beating heart rubs against its pericardial sac, it creates a creaking sound that can be heard with a stethoscope.

From here, the signal is carried along special fibers called Purkinje fibers within the ventricle walls; they pass the impulse to the heart muscle, causing the ventricles to contract. The right ventricle and left ventricle pump blood through the two circuits.Cardiology Teaching Package.

A Beginners Guide to Normal Heart Function, Sinus Rhythm & Common Cardiac Arrhythmias. The Heart. The heart itself is made up of 4 chambers, 2 atria and 2 ventricles. The heart is innervated by the autonomic nerves from superficial and deep cardiac plexuses.

The deep cardiac plexus is located on the bifurcation of the trachea, and the superficial cardiac plexus is located on the base of the heart below the arch of the aorta. One of the basic concepts in anatomy and physiology is the idea of organization.

Levels of structural organization in the Heart Anatomy: chambers, valves and vessels. May 07,  · A Doctor walks you through an animated video about the amazing human heart. The heart lies in the center of the thoracic cavity (see also web Anatomy Tutorial section) and is suspended by its attachment to the great vessels within a fibrous sac known as the pericardium; note that humans have relatively thick walled pericardiums compared to those of the commonly studied large mammalian cardiovascular models (i.e., dog, pig.

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE HEART Location of the Heart The heart is located in the chest between the lungs behind the .

Anatomy and physiology of the heart
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