# Phase modulation

The instantaneous amplitude follows this curve moving positive and then negative, returning to the start point after one complete cycle - it follows the curve of the sine wave. Over the years many other modulation techniques have been developed for radio and micro-wave transmission.

Offset quadrature phase-shift keying OQPSK is a variant of phase-shift keying modulation using four different values of the phase to transmit.

The two signal components with their bit assignments are shown at the top, and the total combined signal at the bottom.

The two carrier waves are a cosine wave and a sine wave, as indicated by the signal-space analysis above. They were also shorter range, but that had to do with the frequency band chosen. Timing diagram for QPSK.

Amplitude modulated signals, however, are susceptible to degrading as a result of dispersion and other fiber Phase modulation. Here, the odd-numbered bits have been assigned to the in-phase component and the even-numbered bits to the quadrature component taking the first bit as number 1.

Frequency modulation will result in phase modulation if the signal is differentiated first.

Forms of phase modulation Although phase modulation is used for some analogue transmissions, it is far more widely used as a digital form of modulation where it switches between different phases. The binary data stream is shown beneath the time axis. Nonetheless, both are electro-magnetic waves that can be represented by the same equation: If you want to see what is going to happen in optical modulation in the future, just look at what happened in radio in the past.

Note the abrupt changes in phase at some of the bit-period boundaries. All you have to do is go back to the basics of radio.

So phase modulation can be written: The topmost waveform alone matches the description given for BPSK above.

It was quite effective in transmitting the ball game to our transistor radio on a warm summer night, but left much to be desired as a source for music. The list below gives some of the forms of phase shift keying that are used: Note that the amplitude, or the distance between the top peak and the bottom peak, of the lower curve remains constant, while the Phase modulation and frequency, or distance between the peaks, varies with the signal.

The sudden phase-shifts occur about twice as often as for QPSK since the signals no longer change togetherbut they are less severe. In fact, almost everything in optics goes back to radio technology, just million times faster. This is known as phase shift keying, PSK, and there are many flavours of this.

Usually, either the even or odd symbols are used to select points from one of the constellations and the other symbols select points from the other constellation.

The modulated signal is shown below for a short segment of a random binary data-stream. We thought it might be worthwhile to describe some of the basics of phase modulation, since it might not be intuitive to some readers.

Jumps in phase can be seen as the PSK changes the phase on each component at the start of each bit-period.Define phase modulation. phase modulation synonyms, phase modulation pronunciation, phase modulation translation, English dictionary definition of phase modulation.

n. Abbr. pm or p-m A method of signal transmission in which the phase of a carrier wave is varied to transmit information contained in the signal. Phase modulation is defined as the process in which the instantaneous phase of the carrier signal is varied in accordance with the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal.

In this type of modulation, the amplitude and frequency of the carrier signal remains unaltered after PM. Definition of an FM Signal • For a baseband signal, x(t): – k f is the frequency deviation constant in.

Phase-shift keying (PSK) is a digital modulation process which conveys data by changing (modulating) the phase of a constant frequency reference signal (the carrier wave).

The modulation is accomplished by varying the sine and cosine inputs at a precise time. Phase modulation (PM) is a modulation pattern for conditioning communication signals for transmission.

It encodes a message signal as variations in the instantaneous phase of a carrier wave. Phase modulation is one of the two principal forms of angle modulation, together with frequency modulation. Seen and Heard. What made you want to look up phase modulation?Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the quote, if possible).

Phase modulation
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