Since the airports in the UK handled million passengers in if all passengers in the UK were scanned at the maximum dosage, then each year this would produce on average one additional cancer death since there would be million scans per year that the scanners were in operationthough usually each death would not occur in the same year as the particular scan that caused it, since the cancer may take years to grow.
Other professors from the radiology department at UCSF disagree with the claims of the signing four professors. This concern may delay the introduction of routine backscatter scanning in UK airports, which had been planned in response to the attempted Christmas Day attack on Northwest Airlines Flight The Rapiscan Secure was listed in At the high altitudes typical of commercial flights, naturally occurring cosmic radiation is considerably higher than at ground level.
This machine does not show details of human anatomy, and is a different kind of machine from the one used in airports.
By comparison, the amount of radiation from a backscatter scanner is equivalent to about 10 minutes of natural background radiation in the United States, Einstein said.
No cleanup reason has been specified. Ionizing radiation is considered carcinogenic even in very small doses but at the doses used in airport scanners this effect is believed to be negligible for an individual.
Technical countermeasures[ edit ] Some people wish to prevent either the loss of privacy or the possibility of health problems or genetic damage that might be associated with being subjected to a backscatter X-ray scan. These features, combined with fault analysis, ensure that failure of any subsystem results in non-operation of the x-ray generator to prevent accidental exposures.
One company sells X-ray absorbing underwear which is said to have X-ray absorption equivalent to 0. Furthermore, other scientists claim the health effects of backscatter are well understood whereas those from millimeter wave scanners are not: In addition, additional people would be given cancer but would die from other causes.
A linear dose-response relationship has been observed between x-ray dose and double-strand breaks in DNA in human sperm. The ACLU refers to backscatter x-rays as a "virtual strip search". The Quran has commanded the believers, both men and women, to cover their private parts.
Marshals part of the Department of Justice saved thousands of images from a low resolution MM wave scanner: Regarding the UCSF concerns over the high-risk population to sensitive organs, the letter states that such an individual "would have to receive more than 1, screenings to begin to approach the annual limit".
TSA, part of the Department of Homeland Security, said that its scanners do not save images and that the scanners do not have the capability to save images when they are installed in airports,  but later admitted that the scanners are required to be capable of saving images for the purpose of evaluation, training and testing.
Backscatter x-ray technology has been proposed as an alternative to personal searches at airport and other security checkpoints easily penetrating clothing to reveal concealed weapons.
According to a draft[ needs update ] standard on the United States FDA website, the allowable dose from a scan would be 0. One area where backscatter X-ray scanners can provide better performance than MM wave scanners, for example, is in the inspection of the shoes, groin and armpit regions of the body.
However, no long-term studies have been done on the health effects of millimeter wave scanners.Backscatter X-ray is an advanced X-ray imaging technology. Traditional X-ray machines detect hard and soft materials by the variation in x-ray intensity transmitted through the target.
In contrast, backscatter X-ray detects the radiation that reflects from the target. It has potential applications where less-destructive examination is required, and can. About the Journal As one of the oldest and most cited legal journals in Australia, The Australian Law Journal (ISSN: ) is the pre-eminent legal journal covering a spectrum of all the important current and historical legal issues.
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