This proved problematic, since the Spanish government depended on paper, and more paper and more paper. Puerto Rico continues to be a possession of the United States, now officially continues as a self-governing unincorporated territory. At first, gold was the primary mineral mined in the New World, and in various parts of the continent, conquered Native Americans were given quotas of gold that they had to bring to the Spaniards as rent.
In Canada the fur trade with the natives was important. They were given food, clothing, housing and taught farming or household skills. Amerigo Vespucciworking for Portugal in voyages from toestablished that Columbus had reached a new set of continents. But by then, a trans-Atlantic trade in sugar, slaves, and commodities made up for the shortfall.
Those who fought for South American independence were called criollos, American-born descendants of Spaniards, and they continued to rule the many new nations of Spanish America for generations. Norse journeys to Greenland and Canada are supported by historical and archaeological evidence. As more nations gained an interest in the colonization of the Americas, competition for territory became increasingly fierce.
Spanish American wars of independence Spanish colonialization in the Americas. In Peru the indigenous Amerindian pre-contact population of around 6. During this time, the Portuguese gradually switched from an initial plan of establishing trading posts to extensive colonization of what is now Brazil.
Native Americans were paid exceedingly low wages—if anything at all—to peform backbreaking labor on plantations and in mines. Conquistadors descended on America with hopes of bringing Catholicism to new lands while extracting great riches. Painting depicting a Castas with his mixed-race daughter and his Mulatta wife by Miguel CabreraWhen in Maythe Pope Alexander VI issued the Inter caetera bull granting the new lands to the Kingdom of Spainhe requested in exchange an evangelization of the people.
As a result, by the midth century, the Spanish Crown had gained control of much of western South America, and southern North Americain addition to its earlier Caribbean territories. According to Cook, the indigenous Californian population at first contact, inwas aboutand had dropped to 25, by In response to some enslavement of natives in the Caribbean during the early years, the Spanish Crown passed a series of laws prohibiting slavery as early as About 16, French men and women became colonizers.
The lack of food security leading to extremely high mortality rate was quite distressing and cause for despair among the colonists. Early state-sponsored colonists[ edit ] Further information: Called the quinto—which conveniently means "one-fifth"—this was the basis for all subsequent ownership grants from Castile.
However, it was doomed by poor planning, short provisions, weak leadership, lack of demand for trade goods, and devastating disease.
What followed was one of the greatest tragedies in human history as smallpox, influenza, and other communicable diseases ravaged the native populations, killing millions. Progressively the encomienda system, which granted tribute access to indigenous labor and taxation to European settlers, was set in place.
Spain ruled a vast empire based on the labor and exploitation of the native population. This solved the trade imbalance by giving the Spanish merchants something to sell in return for the gold, silver, and sugar produced in the New World. Nonetheless, as always happens with these things, the Spanish economy suffered as a trade imbalance grew with the New World.
Afterthings began to change. Demographic impact[ edit ] It has been estimated that over 1. The Protestant Reformation of the 16th century broke the unity of Western Christendom and led to the formation of numerous new religious sects, which often faced persecution by governmental authorities.
More silver, over the next hundred years, than had existed in all of Europe up to that time. Norse colonization of the Americas Voyages of the Vikings to America.
Minerals The other aspect of the Spanish colonial economy was the exploitation of land. Beforethe encomenderos and other Spaniards paid for all these trade goods with gold and silver, and occasionally, some foodstuffs like chocolate, corn, and potatoes.
Colonial society was hierarchical, based upon on the amount of non-Spanish blood a person possessed. Dominican, Franciscan, and Jesuit missionaries were often left in charge of large areas in what is now Texas, Arizona, New Mexico and, later, California.
To support the Colony, numerous supply missions were organized. Of course, discrimination and repression were features of Spanish colonial rule throughout its history. These were created to prevent the exploitation of the indigenous peoples by the encomenderos or landowners, by strictly limiting their power and dominion.Patriarchy (the rule of men over family, society, and government) shaped the Spanish colonial world.
Women occupied a lower status. In all matters, the Spanish held themselves to be atop the social pyramid, with native peoples and Africans beneath them.
Ch 13 help. STUDY. PLAY. Which states didn't become a colonial power in the period ? A legal system in Spanish America that granted groups of native people to settlers.
Which of the following statements best reflects the Spanish settlers as a social group in the lands of the Aztecs and Incas during the seventeenth century?
Early European possessions in North America included Spanish Florida, Spanish New Mexico, the English colonies of Virginia (with its North Atlantic offshoot, Bermuda) and New England, the French colonies of Acadia and Canada, the Swedish colony of New Sweden, and the Dutch New Netherland.
The Spanish conquest of Yucatán, the Spanish conquest of Guatemala, the war of Mexico's west, and the Chichimeca War in northern Mexico expanded Spanish control over territory and indigenous populations.
Spanish and English colonization of the Caribbean resulted in the "loss of paradise," but also: the beginnings of West Indian influence in North America as planters began to settle the Carolinas.
The principal institution used by the Spanish to incorporate natives into colonial society was: the mission. During the Spanish colonial period, the economy was based on exploitation, both of land and of Native American labor. The first Spanish settlers organized the encomienda system by which Spaniards were given title to American land and ownership of the villages on that land.
In return for promises to.Download